Explore our Community Workshop Reports for Achievability
and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars
The Achieving Mars (AM) annual workshops, hosted by Explore Mars, Inc., a 501(c)(3) non-profit, bring together leading experts from disparate fields, and offer the opportunity for the broad community of technologists, scientists, engineers, and policy experts to contribute to the expansion of human presence beyond the Earth.
Effective Cooperation, Coordination, and Communication in Developing Human Missions to Mars:

The Tenth Community Workshop for Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars

AM X Co-Chairs: Erik Antonsen, Bruce Jakosky, Lisa May

From December 5-7, 2023, Explore Mars, Inc., a 501(c)(3) non-profit, hosted the Tenth Community Workshop for Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars (“AM X”) at The George Washington University in Washington, DC. The annual AM workshops ( have been an essential opportunity for a broad community to contribute to the development and justification of valuable elements of NASA’s human space flight program. Participants of these workshops include individuals from NASA, industry, and academia, with expertise covering a wide range of topics related to the human exploration of Mars.

The Moon-to-Mars (M2M) Architecture Definition Document (ADD) recently released by NASA provides a strong starting point for an iterative architecture process that will evolve through annual Architecture Concept Reviews (ACRs). Commercial spaceflight companies are also working on independent pathways to reach Mars. As NASA’s M2M ADD continues to evolve through the ACRs, the importance of effective cooperation, coordination, and communication among key stakeholders grows. Participants in the AM X workshop offered findings and recommendations to ensure that key stakeholder communities collaborate to effectively support the planning, design, and implementation of the M2M program. Participants observed that despite recent progress, existing channels were insufficient to adequately integrate human capabilities and limitations as well as science objectives into the architecture development process. Similarly, sustainable human exploration of the Moon and Mars will not occur unless science and human exploration objectives are infused early and continuously into the systems engineering processes. This summary document provides recommendations to help improve the process.

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AM I Report